GAZA GAZING AT US... SENDING OUT AN S.O.S.
1- The Three Doors
In the Gaza Strip there are three doors, one to the North-East (Erez Crossing), the other to the South-West (Rafah Crossing).
One to Israel, the other to Egypt. Plus the Kerem Shalom Crossing, for trucks only, 2 km South of Rafah.
Today, as of early April 2018, the three doors are practically closed. Few people cross daily to Israel and back through Erez, due to security considerations between Israel and Gaza. None cross through Rafah to Egypt and back, except a few times a year, without any warning, leaving tens of thousands on waiting lists.
When the Rafah Crossing was opened in February, hundreds of Palestinians, women, children, old people most of them, remained stranded on the Egyptian side for days on end, unallowed to come home. "We are being treated like animals" they complained.
In the last months the number of trucks coming into Gaza from Israel has tragically fallen from 800/1,000 a day to 300-350. Not due to restrictive measures taken by Israel, but to the collapse of Gazans' purchasing power. People in Gaza just do not have the means anymore to buy what they need for basic daily life.
2- The Great Border Breach
Ten years ago, on January 2008, after 7 months of blockade, both by Israel and Egypt, the people of Gaza, under the guidance of activists who demolished the metal wall separating them from Egypt, desperately rushed to the other side. The United Nations observers estimated to half the population the number of those who crossed over for goods and supplies (between 700,000 and 800,000 then). After a few days though, then President Mubarak ordered the border to be sealed again, and they all had to return to what had become a cage to them.
Check : Gaza Border Breach
3- The Open the Doors Campaign
A handful of Nobel Laureates then started the Open the Doors Campaign, based on three main demands :
- "enable Gaza to open to the world"
- "end all killings and attacks" on both sides
- "release a significant group of women prisoners, sick prisoners, the youngest and longest-serving, along with those held under arbitrary procedures"
(among the prisoners was Sargeant Shalit who had been captured in a crossborder raid and detained underground, incommunicado, since June 2006).
As they felt more leverage was needed, they extended this Campaign to the European Parliament - the only major forum worldwide directly related to Israel and Palestine, on every level : historical, geographical, spiritual, and human. Reaching up to 54% of the Members of Parliament in 2014.
The release of Sargeant Shalit was obtained in October 2011, along with the release of 1,000 Palestinian prisoners and most of the women detained.
Since, things have been stalling, and the human condition of the 2 million Gazans has gradually deteriorated to a point of no-return.
4- Raw facts that "everybody" knows
Electricity can be switched on for 3 to 4 hours a day only. Families, businesses, hospitals, depend on generators - and their fuel, to be bought from Israel or Egypt. Strictly speaking, people live in the dark.
Water from the taps is unfit to drink, and people have to buy water from barrels and bottles, which depletes their misery budget - 80% live in poverty, 65% under the poverty line, 45% of the people are unemployed (as opposed to 20% in the West Bank and 4.3% in Israel). For women and those under the age of 25, the figure rises to more than 60%, close to two thirds.
The median age is 17. Half of the population is under 15. Although they could enjoy bathing along the Mediterranean shore, this has become a health hazard, as the water is tragically polluted from raw sewage rejected into it, due to electricity shortage. Even the beaches further North, in Israel, up to Ashkelon, are now polluted.
5- Life and death underground
What has changed since January 2008 ?
Precious little. Things have only gone from bad to worse, from one Egyptian president to the next. There's no leaving the Gaza Strip, except through the Erez Crossing trickle to Israel, and the occasional and chaotic opening of the Rafah Crossing to Egypt for a short period, once a month at best.
Activists and young men working for wages keep digging tunnels, deeper and deeper, often dying underground, buried alive in yellow sandy earth, crushed by collapses. Dozens have died this way. Egyptian and Israeli authorities keep flooding, destroying the tunnels, one after the other. Whereas there were once as many as a thousand, the tunnel business is nothing like what it was in the Mubarak-Morsi years.
6- What of the "March of Return"?
It can be seen as a ploy, a Trojan Horse of vast proportions, with an ultimate scheme of mayhem and bloodshed - since bloodshed is the only element that may attract the world's attention.
Close to 800,000 people desperately broke through the border with Egypt in 2008. This time the focus is on Israel, with the irreal goal of the 1948 refugees and their descendants (millions of them) returning to their former lands and homes. No Israeli government can ever yield to that. It would mean the implosion of the Jewish State, by the force of numbers and chaos. 1948 was 70 years ago. Where in the world do refugees return en masse after 70 years ?
Add to this the number of military tunnels that have been dug from Gaza into Israel in the latter years, and you will understand that the Israelis have reasons to fear anything that could look like the Great Border Breach of 2008, this time into their land.
Now, if you were Gazan, what would you do? Israeli citizen Leah Solomon asked.
7- What can - and must - be done, urgently
Since we are free to move and act as we please, whether in Europe, America, or the rest of the world, what can we do not to just sit back and pretend that we just don't see ?
The very least that can be done is to reopen one of the two Gaza doors, the Rafah Crossing. All the more as no other than the European Union (Nobel Peace Laureate for 2012) has kept its keys since 2007.
From 2005 to 2007, a remarkable team of 60 inspectors, the EU Border Assistance Mission - Rafah, did their job, letting an average of 1,500 Gazans cross daily. In the summer of 2007, these inspectors were sent back to Ashkelon, and later to the suburb of Tel Aviv, where they have been stationed since, at the cost of 1 million euros a year.
Under the motive that "we don't talk to Hamas". "Hamas" couldn't have cared less. The people only paid the price. Since November 1, 2017 though, this pretext has lost its last shred of validity, since none other than the Palestinian Presidential Guard has seized control of the Rafah Crossing. In the current year, from July 2017 until the end of June 2018, the EUBAM - Rafah budget has been doubled to 1.98 million euros. What are they waiting for ?
8- Mach die Tür Auf ! Open that Door !
All we are asking is: let the EUBAM-Rafah Mission get back to work, and do its job. Mach die Tür Auf ! Open that Door !
And let's start working on Gaza's offshore harbour! ["A new island in the Mediterranean... just off Gaza" June 2017]
Give Gaza a Fourth Door : to the World !
We, the European Union, the United States, the willing Emirates, Japan, Russia, China (why not?), under the blue flag of the United Nations.
Let the people of Gaza out !
FOUR BOYS IN APRIL
Tahrir Mahmoud Wahba, deaf boy of 18,
shot down on Friday, April 13,
in the border area of Khan Yunis
Died on Monday morning, April 16
Abdel Rahman Nawfal, 12 – threw stones at soldiers
on Tuesday, April 17
shot down along the Eastern border of Central Gaza
left wing amputated below the knee
Mohammad Ayoub, 15,
crossed a line of barbed wire
shot in the head, Friday, April 20
Azzam Uweida, 15
Shot down on Friday, April 27
Died Saturday 28
Juliane Helmhold, The Jerusalem Post, May 24, 2018
WATCH : Behind the Smokescreen Part II - Exclusive footage [The Great Deception, by Pierre Rehov]
Alia Chughtai, Al Jazeera, May 16, 2018
Amira Hass, Haaretz, May 20, 2018
Juliane Helmhold, The Jerusalem Post, May 7, 2018
WATCH: Exclusive footage from inside Gaza reveals true face of protests [11 mn video by Pierre Rehov, with M. Zahar's statement]
Fadi Abu Shammalah, The New York Times, April 27, 2018
A LETTER FROM GAZA IN MAY
My name is Olfat al-Kurd. I live in Shuja'iya in Gaza. I am 37 years old and have four children. In July 2017, I joined the B’Tselem team as one of three field researchers in Gaza. In the past few weeks, since the protests along the fence with Israel began, we have been working around the clock to document, collect eyewitness accounts and testimonies of injured people, and gather information about the demonstrations and casualties.
I attend the weekly protests not only in my professional capacity but also as a Gazan. Some of my photos, posted on B’Tselem’s photo blog, show how most of the protesters gather in tents pitched far from the fence. These families enjoy entertainment stages, live music, food stalls and other family activities. We go there to convey a political message, to demonstrate, but non-violently – we don’t go there with weapons. The soldiers shoot at us nonetheless, and people are injured from live fire and tear gas.
This week, a concerned Israeli colleague asked me why I keep attending the protests, even though it’s dangerous. I replied that I am, of course, afraid, sometimes so much that I fear I won’t come back.
But the truth is that nowhere in Gaza is safe – whether near the border or in our own homes. Israeli planes can bomb any house, anywhere, at any moment. We all live in constant dread of something terrible happening. Everyone in Gaza lost a relative in the last wars. I lost my brother in the 2009 war.
The festival activities at the protests are a rare opportunity for us to breathe, meet people, and feel that we belong to something larger than ourselves. The open areas near the fence are the vastest in Gaza, but no one has dared go there since the last war. We can’t go to the beach any longer because sewage infrastructure has collapsed as a result of the blockade, and raw sewage flows into the sea. Many Gazans live in abject poverty and cannot afford to sit in a café or a restaurant, so they come to the protests with a coffee thermos and food.
Israel has been holding Gaza under blockade for more than ten years. Some of the young people participating in the protests and being wounded or even killed by soldiers, do not know what it’s like to have running water and a steady supply of electricity. They have never left Gaza and grew up in a prison.
You can’t visit us, Israel doesn’t allow anyone to see what’s going on here. There is no real life in Gaza. The whole place is clinically dead.
The younger generations are crushed by the hopelessness and death everywhere. The protests have given us all a spark of hope. They are our attempt to cry out to the world that it must wake up, that there are people here fighting for their most basic rights, which they are entitled to fulfill. We deserve to live, too.
Gaza Field Researcher
Sderot, just a mile from Gaza... across the foot-bridge in the desert
LIFE UNDER THE GUN : Beersheba station after a terror attack in the North
The Journey to Peace at Abraham's Well, and at Jerusalem Central Station, on an ordinary day... From Qumran to Nazareth, via the Dead Sea, the Sea of Galilee and the Mount of Beatitudes... In the streets of Nazareth... From Nazareth to Jaffa... In the Desert, under the sign of Hagar and Sara Last evening in Jerusalem...
Sderot, à moins de 2 km de Gaza, départ de la gare blindée traversée de la passerelle dans le désert
LA VIE SOUS L'UNIFORME : gare de Beersheba après un attentat au Nord
La Marche de la Paix passe par le Puits d'Abraham puis par la Gare Centrale de Jérusalem, un jour ordinaire de mobilisation... De Qumran à Nazareth, via la Mer Morte, la Mer de Galilée et le Mont des Béatitudes.... Dans les rues de Nazareth... De Nazareth à Jaffa... Dans le Désert, sous le signe de Hagar et Sara Dernier soir à Jérusalem...
In December 2016, a journalist asked the movie star Isabelle Adjani : "You have beauty, intelligence, sensitivity, success. What is lacking for you ?"
"What is lacking, actually," she replied, "is what's lacking for most people these days, if I trust the rising anger, along with the wave of extremists.
What is lacking, for me, is to be the citizen of a fairer world, one that takes care of people and of the environment...
What is lacking in me ? To find the way back to hope."
This is a crisp, ordinary Monday morning in Europe. Every morning after dawn, at the desk of Peace Lines, we scan the news from the most barren land as far as "hope" goes, for traces of the elusive mind metal that will pull us through. You may remember that the human body is composed of about thirty rare metals that help it function (iron, 4 grams; zinc, about 2 grams; lead, one tenth of a gram; copper, even less; nickel, chrome, silver, gold, uranium even, in minute quantities, along with lithium which stabilizes our mood...). Aluminum, cadmium, titanum, tantalum, you name it, it's all there. The only one that has not been listed is mandelum, which precisely reinforces our mood, here named after the man who most worked on it...
Think of a man who spent 27 crucial years of his life behind bars, who got his freedom at the age of 72, and was elected President of his country when he was 75 : he should know something about hope ! Actually, this is what he wrote about it to his wife, when he was in a small cell :
“The crop of miseries we have harvested from the heartbreaking frustrations of the last 15 months are not likely to fade away easily from the mind. I feel as if I have been soaked in gall, every part of me, my flesh, bloodstream, bone and soul, so bitter I am to be completely powerless to help you in the rough and fierce ordeals you are going through...
In spite of all that has happened I have, throughout the ebb and flow of the tides of fortune in the last 15 months, lived in hope and expectation. Sometimes I even have the belief that this feeling is part and parcel of my self. It seems to be woven into my being. I feel my heart pumping hope steadily to every part of my body, warming my blood and pepping up my spirits. I am convinced that floods of personal disaster can never drown a determined revolutionary nor can the cumulus of misery that accompanies tragedy suffocate him. To a freedom fighter hope is what a life belt is to a swimmer – a guarantee that one will keep afloat and free from danger.”
To find the way back to hope ? You have to cherish and nourish the belief that there is such a thing as hope, such a mind mineral, rare as it has become.
Our challenge has been to go dig it out from the most unlikely places (in common "wisdom") : from Jenin to Gaza, from Sderot to Jerusalem... But maybe you should hear this song, one of the mandelum songs, about something that happened in Jenin, and Petah Tikva in Israel...
The story of a Palestinian boy, Ahmed Khatib, who was shot by an Israeli soldier for playing with a plastic gun... whose parents saved 5 lives, by accepting to donate his organs... After his death, his father created the Ahmed Khatib Center for Peace in the Jenin refugee camp to provide children alternatives to life (and death) on the streets, such as a film-making course, connected to the reopening of the Cinema Jenin. "This kind of action is a form of resistance," said Zakaria Zbeida, ex-leader of the Fatah's armed wing in Jenin. "Five members of the Israeli community are now carrying part of a Palestinian. I don't think someone with a Palestinian organ will now kill a Palestinian."
If this happened in a land torn by warfare, fear and hatred, maybe the likes of Ahmed's parents are the kind of people who know something about the way back to hope... Do you remember the gold rushes of the past ? The way some men would leave everything behind in their quest for the fabulous metal? Our stand, as Peace Liners, is that Hope is much more precious than silver and gold - but it won't be bought from some miner or jeweller.
Looking for the way back to hope ? It goes through experience. Experience of long ago, experience of some moments ago, experience of the cycles, all the cycles we surf on, consciously or not.
What is the price of experience ? asked both poets William Blake and Van Morrison. Do men buy it for a song ? We all pay for experience, in years of our life, i.e. with all that a man hath. The more aware the better. And when it feels like a sentence to 27 years behind invisible bars, that's when you most need the opening. The hopening. Have you really looked at this crushing routine from all angles ?
But where to find the beginning of the road back to hope ? If beauty is in the eyes of the beholder, then hope is in the mind of the seeker. It's there, right there, within reach. All you need is to switch to another level, another altitude - in Bertrand Piccard's words (the first to complete a non-stop balloon flight around the world, and to conceive and man the first round-the-world solar flight!).
Not that you have to be another Mandela, Leymah Gbowee, Khatib, or Piccard, to keep your heart pumping hope steadily to every part of your body, pepping up your spirits. You only need to make room to find the hopening. Close some connections, (re)open some channels. Unclutter, reorganize, follow a different plan. Dare challenge the unpredictable : take your risks, go for it.
Reuters, The Jerusalem Post, May 24, 2018
Jake Cohen, The Times of Israel, May 22, 2018
Jan van Mil, The Jerusalem Post, May 21, 2018
Gol Kalev, The Jerusalem Post, May 20, 2018
Sarah Levi, The Jerusalem Post, May 16, 2018
Shayna Abramson, The Times of Israel, May 15, 2018
Diana Lipton, The Times of Israel, May 10, 2018
Lidar Gravé-Lazi, The Jerusalem Post, May 10, 2018
Sarah Tuttle-Singer, The Times of Israel, May 9, 2018
Ahmad Melhem, Al Monitor, May 8, 2018
Gur Megiddo, Haaretz, May 8, 2018
Ahmad Melhem, Al Monitor, May 7, 2018
Rasha Abou Jalal, Al Monitor, May 6, 2018
David Horovitz, The Times of Israel, May 3, 2018
Daoud Kuttab, Al Monitor, April 27, 2018
Mersiha Gadzo & Anas Jnena, Al Jazeera, April 21, 2018
David Grossman, Haaretz, April 18, 2018
David Grossman c/o Itai Blumenthal, YNet News, April 18, 2018 ["It's so easy to devote oneself to hatred and rage and a desire to take revenge..."]
Joint Israeli-Palestinian memorial goes ahead under eye of heavy security ["If the Israelis don't have a home, the Palestinians won't have a home either, and vice versa"]
Salman Masalha, Haaretz, April 18, 2018
Tamar Ben-Ozer, The Jerusalem Post, April 18, 2018
Huda Baroud, Al Monitor, April 18, 2018
Jacob Magid, The Times of Israel, April 18, 2018
Noam Chen, The Times of Israel, April 18, 2018
Dina Kraft, Haaretz, April 17, 2018
Sarah Tuttle-Singer, The Times of Israel, April 15, 2018
Iris Leal, Haaretz, April 15, 2018
Hana Salah, Al Monitor, April 13, 2018
Women at the front lines of Gaza protests [Women’s activities in the camps are characterized by pacifism]
Aziza Nofal, Al Monitor, April 12, 2018
Yossi Beilin, Al Monitor, April 10, 2018
Khaled Abu Toameh, The Times of Israel, April 9, 2018
Shaiya Rothberg, The Times of Israel, April 9, 2018
Elior Levy, YNet News, April 6, 2018
Oliver Holmes & Hazem Balousha, The Guardian, April 6, 2018
Allison Kaplan Sommer, Haaretz, April 5, 2018
YNet News, April 3, 2018
Lior Tal Sadeh, The Times of Israel, April 2, 2018
Leah Solomon, The Times of Israel, April 1, 2018
YNet News, April 1, 2018
Ben-Dror Yemini, YNet News, March 31, 2018
Yasir Wakid, Haaretz, March 22, 2018
Jessica Steinberg, The Times of Israel, March 21, 2018
Jonathan Weber Rosen, The Jerusalem Post, March 19, 2018
Jonathan Jacobson, Haaretz, March 15, 2018
How a Bitcoin Developer Ended Up Fighting ISIS in Syria [Amir Taaki : "We have to drop these categories of Jew, Syrian, Arab and so on. I honestly believe Rojava is the only solution for a lasting peace in the midst of this chaotic Middle East."]
Elad Benari, Israel National News, March 15, 2018
Shlomi Eldar, Al Monitor, March 14, 2018
Amir Alon, YNet News, March 14, 2018
Judy Siegel-Itzkovich, The Jerusalem Post, March 14, 2018
Prof. Stephen Hawking's love-hate relation ship with Israel ["He didn't surrender to his illness... He smiled at life and maybe even at death"]
Udi Shaham, The Jerusalem Post, March 14, 2018
Aziza Nofal, Al Monitor, March 12, 2018
International prize nomination shines spotlight on West Bank theater [in Beit Jala, Bethlehem]
Shachar Peled, Haaretz, March 11, 2018
Sarah Levi, The Jerusalem Post, March 10, 2018
Florence Massena, Al Monitor, March 9, 2018
Syrian children in Lebanon express their plight with poetry [the Haneen = "Loving" Exhibition in Beirut]
Mersiha Gadzo, Al Jazeera, March 8, 2018
Arona Maskil, YNet News, March 8, 2018
Welcome to Israel: Are you ready for fast and furious? [to understand the Israeli way of life]
Roi Rubinstein, YNet News, March 6, 2018
Shaul Arieli & Nimrod Novik, The Times of Israel, March 6, 2018
Netta Ahituv, Haaretz, March 3, 2018
Sarah Tuttle-Singer, The Times of Israel, February 28, 2018
When an ultra-Orthodox woman kissed me in the middle of Jerusalem [Jerusalem is love]
Lidar Gravé-Lazi, The Times of Israel, February 26, 2018
Sarah Tuttle-Singer, The Times of Israel, February 25, 2018
Shoshana Kranish, The Jerusalem Post, February 23, 2018
Ron Kronish, The Times of Israel, February 22, 2018
Ariel Dominique Hendelman, The Jerusalem Post, February 17, 2018
Elior Levy, YNet News, February 15, 2018
In prison I understood Israelis want peace, says released Palestinian murderer [ex security prisoners talk about their life in Israeli prisons]
Micah Goodman, Haaretz, February 15, 2018
Andrew Esensten, Haaretz, February 13, 2018
Dov Lieber, The Times of Israel, February 9, 2018
Jonathan Sacks, The Times of Israel, February 8, 2018
The power of empathy (Mishpatim, Covenant and Conversation 5778) ["The only genuine, non-violent alternative is to enter into the pain of the other..."]
Chana Roberts, Israel National News, February 7, 2018
'If the other side doesn't want peace, how can you have peace?' [Muslim author & journalist, human rights activist Raheel Raza]
Rasha Abou Jalal, Al Monitor, February 5, 2018
Dov Lieber, The Times of Israel, February 4, 2018
Amani Nasser al-Shurafa, Al Monitor, February 4, 2018
Reuters, The Jerusalem Post, February 3, 2018 ["By advancing a policy that impacts every life, every day, we can restore hope in the possibility of peace, one glass at a time"]
Associated Press, YNet News, February 3, 2018
Ari Plachta, Haaretz, February 2, 2018
Yotam Berger & Yaniv Kubovich, Haaretz, February 2, 2018
KKL-JNF, The Jerusalem Post, February 1, 2018
Planting seeds of unity in Lahav forest [Jews and Arabs, Reform and Conservative Jews, religious and secular Jews, right and left]
Hana Salah, Al Monitor, January 31, 2018
Shmuel Harlap, Haaretz, February 1, 2018
David Rosenberg, Israel National News, January 30, 2018
Huda Baroud, Al Monitor, January 28, 2018 [Jan. 15 exhibition organized by the Palestinian Environmental Quality Authority with the support of the European Union]
Alaa ElBurai, Al Monitor, January 28, 2018
Arik Ascherman, The Times of Israel, January 26, 2018
Qanta A. Ahmed, The Times of Israel, January 26, 2018
Huda Baroud, Al Monitor, January 25, 2018
Why Gaza merchants are forgiving debt [ the “Sameh, Toujar” campaign : (Forgive and You Shall Receive) ]
Tamam Mohsen, Al Monitor, January 24, 2018
Giulio Meotti, Israel National News, January 24, 2018
Akiva Eldar, Al Monitor, January 23, 2018
New Palestinian metropolis offers economic route around occupation [Masri : "Rawabi sends a message to the international community..."]
Jessica Steinberg, The Times of Israel, January 21, 2018
Lidar Gravé-Lazi, The Jerusalem Post, January 21, 2018
Barry Davis, The Jerusalem Post, January 20, 2018
Judy Maltz, Haaretz, January 18, 2018
Jacob Magid, The Times of Israel, January 17, 2018
Ofer Petersburg, YNet News, January 15, 2018
Anna Ahronheim, The Jerusalem Post, January 15, 2018
Rasha Abou Jalal, Al Monitor, January 12, 2018
Ahmed Sammak, Al Monitor, January 12, 2018
Jacob Magid, The Times of Israel, January 12, 2018
Judy Maltz, Haaretz, January 11, 2018 [ "when you come here and meet people face to face and see how they live their daily lives, the picture you get is quite different"]
It Started as a Joke: Only Women Could Fix the 'Mess in the Middle East' ["no people are inherently evil, this isn’t a situation of good guys versus bad guys"]
Michal Shilor, The Times of Israel, January 10, 2018
The Jerusalem we know [Jerusalem is a microcosm of the conflict itself, the epicenter of the most difficult issues facing our people. Yet it is also where the solution lies]
Dr Michael Laitman, The Jerusalem Post, Jan. 10, 2018 [About "the tendency to unite (the Hebrew word for “Jew” [Yehudi] comes from the word for “united” [yihudi]"]
Yoav Peck, The Times of Israel, January 9, 2018
Avi Davidi, The Times of Israel, January 7, 2018
Michael Eisenberg, The Times of Israel, January 7, 2018
Jerusalem’s brand? It’s the City of Empathy [Schools, education, 21st century skills and tough neighborhoods is an empathy industry that creates badly needed skills]
Al Jazeera, January 6, 2018
Malcolm X and Martin Luther King [a 47' video portrait "face to face"]
Joumana Imad, Al Monitor, January 5, 2018
Judy Maltz, Haaretz, January 5, 2018
Israel National News, January 4, 2018
Entsar Abu Jahal, Al Monitor, January 3, 2018 [more than 73% of the seawater along the Gazan coast was contaminated last July. Only 23% of the seawater was contaminated before 2014 ]
Debra Kamin, Al Monitor, January 2, 2018 [Nearly 50% of Israelis can trace their roots to Arabic-speaking nations like Yemen, Syria and Iraq]
Ronen Bergman, YNet News, January 2, 2018
Ben-Dror Yemini, YNet News, January 2, 2018
David Brinn, The Jerusalem Post, January 2, 2018
Ringo Starr to perform in Israel 52 years after cancelled concert [Starr is known for carrying the message of unity The Beatles helped forge and for flashing the peace sign]
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